Citation: "A 'citation' is the way you tell your readers that certain material in your work came from another source. It also gives your readers the information necessary to find that source again." (http://www.plagiarism.org/article/what-is-citation)
Plagiarize: "To steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own :use (another's production) without crediting the source" (https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/plagiarizing)
Bibliography: "The works or a list of the works referred to in a text or consulted by the author in its production." (https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/bibliography) *sometimes called "Works Cited"
Plagiarism is when you copy the words or ideas of another person without properly crediting them. An author's words and ideas are their intellectual property. Intellectual property requires acknowledgement of the creator's work before it is used elsewhere. Plagiarism is taken seriously at all academic institutions regardless of whether or not the plagiarism was a deliberate.
You don't have to cite information that is common knowledge. Common knowledge is considered information that the average person would know. For example: The Statue of Liberty is located in New York City.
Everything! Each style guide has standards for how to cite different materials. Here are some examples of things you might cite, although the list is not comprehensive.
Different citation styles (listed below) have different components. However, most citation styles include these main information points.
Your instructor may tell you which citation style to use or they may just tell you to pick a style and be consistent. Which citation style you use for a class will therefore come down to personal preference and what you are comfortable with. In many ways, citation styles are arbitrary. Certain style guides are used more frequently by certain disciplines. If you begin to write academically, scholarly journals will frequently have their own specific citation format, too! If you are asked to pick your own citation style, don't stress out about it too much; just pick one that you like and get started.
The three style guides below are the most commonly used at universities and other academic institutions.
If you're writing a paper about the history of an NYBG garden, you've probably used a library vertical file. If you haven't, you should! Vertical Files are a unique library collection of folders containing photographs, newspaper articles, magazine clippings, brochures and other related ephemeral. Citing vertical files can be difficult, so guidelines can be found below.
Format: Title of item. (date) Folder name, Vertical File collection, The LuEsther T. Mertz Library, The New York Botanical Garden. Date that items were accessed.
Example: Photograph of Bronx River Waterfall. (1909). Folder Bronx River, NYBG Vertical File, The LuEsther T. Mertz Library, The New York Botanical Garden. June 14, 2016.
Please do not hesitate to contact the library with any questions about accessing materials in the library or at home.
There are websites that you can use to auto-generate citations in various styles as well as websites you can use to check writing for plagiarism. We do not have a favorite site for either function; do an Internet search to explore the available websites. If you're over whelmed by the search results, try using Citation Generator.
Some library databases allow users to conveniently cite their resources in various styles with the click of a button! For example, the "Cite This Item" in JSTOR prompts users to select the citation style and provides various ways to export the citation. Other databases may have this function under a different name.
If you would prefer to have a reference book to assist you with all of your writing needs, we recommend using A Writer's Reference 8th ed. by Diana Hacker.
Below are additional guides that have helped inspire this one: