Bromeliads are some of the best tropical plants to grow in your home. They are extremely adaptable and tolerate a variety of home environments. By following a few basic techniques, you can watch these beautiful and brightly colored plants thrive and flower for years to come.
Why Grow Bromeliads?
They are easy to grow indoors.
Most species tolerate infrequent watering.
They have beautiful forms, foliage and flowers.
The flowers (inflorescence) last three months or more.
They reproduce consistently and rapidly.
There are few pests and diseases that attack bromeliads.
General Cultural Requirements of Bromeliads
Most bromeliads are very adaptable and resilient house plants. Bromeliads can be either epiphytic (growing in air), saxicolous (growing on rocks) or terrestrial (growing in the ground). Listed below are basic guidelines that will allow them to thrive and bloom repeatedly in your home.
Bromeliads can be grown in windows or under fluorescent light. Most bromeliads thrive in bright, indirect light. In the summer, they can be grown outdoors.
Bromeliads tolerate a broad range of temperatures from near freezing to 100ºF. The majority of bromeliads are happiest in temperatures that range between 65 to 90ºF during the day and 50 to 65ºF at night.
Most bromeliads benefit from high humidity and good air circulation. An easy way to increase the humidity is to place a tray of gravel under the pots and fill the tray with water so that the water level is slightly lower than the top of the gravel. Water will evaporate and raise the humidity but the plant will not be sitting in the moisture. Increasing the humidity is particularly important when the heat or air conditioner is on in your home.
Potting soils should be acidic and hold moisture yet drain quickly. Orchid mixes, peat moss, sphagnum moss and charcoal all work well, as do soil-less potting mixes. One easy recipe is half soil-less mix and half orchid mix (fine grade). Two things to avoid: do not use garden soil and do not add a layer of drainage material to the bottom of the pot (that drainage only works if the upper level is saturated; the idea is to avoid potting mediums that become saturated).
Epiphytic bromeliads can either be grown in a pot or mounted on pieces of wood with nylon ties or nontoxic, waterproof glue.
Bromeliads that are grown in the air should be watered daily by drenching the plant. They also benefit from being soaked by immersing the plants in water once a week.
Tank bromeliads are plants that hold water in the reservoirs of their leaves. The roots serve to anchor these plants, while the leaves take on the function of water and nutrient absorption. The cups should be full of water at all time; flush the cup with water once a week. The potting medium should be watered but allowed to dry out between waterings.
Use a water soluble fertilizer, mixing it at 1/8 to 1/4 the dose recommended on the bottle. Do not fertilize in the winter months, when the plants have reached maturity and are starting to flower. Fertilize during the growing season every other week to once a month.
Many bromeliads die after flowering (in particular Aechmea and Vriesea). They produce “pups” or small offshoots that develop around the base of the plant. These can be separated from the parent either when the parent starts to die or when the “pups” are 1/3 to 1/2 the size of the parent. To repot the “pups,” gently pull off any dry, leaf-like scales on the base of the “pup.” Bury the base no more than one inch and hold it in place with a rock, floral pin or a stake until the new roots form and take hold. Otherwise, cut the dead parent back to its base and leave the “pups” to grow in the pot.
Others bromeliads form colonies by producing new plants on stolons (long shoots that grow along the soil surface), which branch from the mother plant. These can either be left on to produce a cluster of plants or taken off and planted.
To induce flowering in a bromeliad, increase the light level. Most bromeliads flower in the winter. If you are having a difficult time getting a mature plant to flower, you can force it by placing a fruit bowl with apples next to the plant for a week to 10 days. The ethylene gas produced by the fruit will help to encourage flowering, although you need to be patient.
Aechmeas, billbergias, guzmanias and vrieseas all have wonderful, long-lasting inflorescences (flowering part).